The predominant vegetation is high altitude grasslands, typical of the high mountains of the area, which includes mostly herbaceous, dwarf shrubs and cushion plants. Towards lower altitudes, it is surrounded by forests dominated by species of the genus Nothofagus, mainly lenga (N. pumilio) and guindo or coihue de Magallanes (N. betuloides), with specimens of ñire (N. antarctica) in some more humid or peaty sectors. There are also sectors occupied by peatbogs up to high elevations, dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum and cyperaceae of the genus Carex.

The average annual temperature is around 2-3°C, with 10-11°C being the average for summer and -4°C the average for winter. The average annual precipitation is c. 500 mm, with limited seasonal differences. The soils are poorly developed on Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. 

Human intervention in the area is very sporadic, and it is related mostly with trampling, as people eventually climb to these peaks for recreational activities. There is also a regular presence of wild guanacos.

The installation of the site began in June 2012 and ended in January 2013.


The site is located in the central area of the Isla Grande of Tierra del Fuego, south of Lake Fagnano. It is a mountain range located between Lakes Escondido and San Ricardo, approximately at -54.660 LS and -67.760 LW. 


Summit 1 (C1, 630 m asl), Summit 2 (C2, 670 m asl), Summit 3 (C3, 760 m asl), Summit 4 (C4, 840 m asl).

Responsible Institution:

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

Site coordinator:  María Vanessa Lencinas (mvlencinas@gmail.com)

Database management: María Vanessa Lencinas

Botanic/Taxonomist: María Vanessa Lencinas

Other researchers: Guillermo Martínez Pastur (CADIC-CONICET), Rosina Soler (CADIC-CONICET), Juan Manuel Cellini (LIMAD-UNLP).

Related resources: https://cadic.conicet.gov.ar/recursos-agroforestales/

Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. – Muestreo linea base (2013) cumbre 4

Site richness: 36 species, 31 genera, 17 families

* Total number of vascular plant species (including all summit area sections)
** Mean total cover of vascular plants in the 16 1m2 plots

Soil temperature monthly values (-10 cm) mean, maximum and minimum of Tierra del Fuego, analyzed from temperature data loggers located in each summit as part of GLORIA methods.

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